BIOLOGY, CHAPTER # 2, 9TH, SOLVING A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM, NEW COURSE "
SCIENCE:- Science is the systemized knowledge derived from observations and experiments. These experiments are carried out to determine the principles about how nature operates.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD: Scientice like chemists, biologists and physicists use the same scientific method to make and test new theories.
"The scientific method in which biological problems are solved, is termed as biololgical method". It comprises the steps a biologist adopts in order to solve a biological problem.
ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL METHOD:
Biological method has played an important part in scientific research for almost 500 years. From Galileo’s experiment(in the 1590s) to current research the biological method has contributed to the advancements in medicine, ecology,technology etc. Biological method also ensures the quality of data for public use.
2.1.1 BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM, HYPOTHESIS, DEDUCTIONS AND EXPERIMENTS:
In biology(like other sciences),new things are being discovered and long-held theories are being modified or replaced with better ones as more data/knowledge is accumulated. This happens when biologists recongnize some biological problem and go for its solution. In solving a biological problem, biologist takes following steps;
1• Recognition of biological problem
3• Hypothesis formulation
6• Summarization of results (create tables, graphics etc)
7• Reporting the results
The details of these steps are as under:
1. Recognition of the Biological Problem
Biologists go for adopting biological method when they encounter some biological problem.A biological problem is a question related to living organisms that is either asked by some one or comes in biologist’s mind by himself.
As the first step in solving ad biological problem, biologist recalls his/her previous observations or makes new ones. Observations are made with five senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste and touvh. Observations may be both qualitative and quantitative and quantitative. Quantitative observation are considered more accurate than qualitative ones because the former are invariable and measurable and can be recorded in terms of numbers. Examples of qualitative and quantitativeobservations are given below. Observations also include reading and studying what others have done in the past because scientific knowledge is ever-growing.
In the nex step, biologist draws deductions from hypotheses. Deductions are the logical consezuences of hypotheses. For this purpose, a hypothesis is taken as true and purpose, a hypotheses is taken as true and expected results are drawn from it.
Generally in biological method, if a particular hypotheses is true then one should expect a certain result. This involves the use of if-then logic.
The most basic step of biological method is experiments to see if hypotheses are true or not. The deductions, which are drawn from hypotheses , are subjected to rigorous testing. Through experimentation., Bilogist learns which hypothesis is correct.
The incorrect hypotheses are rejected and the one which proves correct is accepted. An accepted hypothesis makes further predictions that provide and important way to further test its validity.
6. Summarization of results
Biologist gathers actual, quantitative data from experiments. Data for each of the groups are then averaged and compared statistically. To draw conclusions, biologist also uses statistical analysis.
7.Reporting the results
Biologists publish their findings in scientific journals and books, in talks at national and international meetings and in seminars at colleges and universities. Publishing of results is an essential part of scientific method. It allows other people to verify the results or apply the knowledge to solve other problems.
THEORY,LAW AND PRINCIPLE
When a hypothesis is given a repeated exposure to experimentation and is not falsified, be used as the basis for formulating further hypotheses when are again proved by experimental results. The hypotheses that stand the test of time (often tested and never rejected, are called theories. A theory is supported by a great deal of evidence.
DATA ORGANIZATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
Data organization and data analysis are important steps in biological method. Data can be defined as the information such as names, dates or values made from observations and experimentation