Class 9th Biology chapter # 1 introduction to biology
B. Write answers for the following questions.
Q1. Briefly establish the linkage between biology with physics, geography and statistics.
Ans: Linkage between biology and physics:
Biology and physics (biophysics), interdisciplinary study of biological phenomena and problems, using the principles and techniques of physics. Biophysics is closely related to a number of biological disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, physiology, histology, and virology.
Linkage between biology and geography:
Biology and geography are dependent on each other; we study the distribution of plant and animal in biogeography. Scientists also learn about evolution by studying how different species of plants and animals are geographically distributed in nature, and how they relate to their environment and to each other.
Linkage between biology and statistics:
The application of statistical techniques to biological data is biostatistics. Biostatistics include such measures as birth, death, and infant death rates; diseases; and trends of this data over time. The biostatistician works to collect such measures, which may include surveys, lab reports, and hospital discharge data.
Q2. Define biology. List down its major branches
Ans: Major Branches of Biology:
Biology: The word “biology” derived from two Greek words “Bios” meaning life and “Logos” meaning study, so the scientific study of life is called biology. OR “The study of living things is called biology”. Biology includes several branches. Three major branches of biology are given below.
Botany –Greek: botane means plants.
“A branch of biology which deals with the scientific study of plants is called Botany”.
Zoology – Greek: Zoon means animals
“ The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals”.
Microbiology – Greek: mikros means small
“The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms”
Q3. Define other branches of biology
Ans: Biology is further divided into several sub branches some of them are given below,
Morphology – Greek: Morph means structure
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of structure of organisms is called morphology”
Anatomy – Greek: Anatome means dissection / cutting
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of internal parts of organisms is called anatomy”
Physiology – Latin: Physiologia means function
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts is called physiology”
Embryology / Developmental Biology - Greek: Embroun means growth
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the processes through which an organism develops, from zygote to full structure is called embryology”
Cell Biology/ Cytology – Greek: Cyto means cell
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of a single cell and its organelles is ca lled cytology”
Histology – Greek: Histos means tissue
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of tissue, under a microscope is called histology”
Paleontology – Greek: Palaios means primitive/fossil
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms is called paleontology. Paleontology has further two branches, a) paleobotany: Study of plants fossils, b) Paleozoology: study of animals fossils.
Immunobiology /Immunology – Latin: Immunis means not affected by disease.
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the immune system in body of organisms against diseases is called immunology.
Entomology - Greek: Entomon means Insect.
The study of insects is called entomology.
Genetics – Greek: Genos means race/kind/ancestry/heredity
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of hereditary characters that transmitted from parents to offspring is called genetics.
Microbiology – Greek: mikros means small
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of small and microscopic organisms (microorganisms/microbes) and their interactions with other living things is called microbiology.
“A technology that used for human welfare is called biotechnology.” e.g. making of Butter, cheese, and vine. Biotechnology also help in cloning/tissue culture etc
Environmental Biology / Ecology – Greek: Oikos means house/habitation
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the relationships between plants, animals, and their environment is called ecology.
Parisitology – Greek: Parasitos means some body that eats another’s food/grains
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of parasites, life cycle of parasites and relation with their host is called parastology.
Social biology – Latin: Socialis means companion
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of those organisms which are living together in a community and interact each other is called social biology, e.g. social insects (ants, bees, and termites), birds flock, humans and fishes living in groups.
Pharmacology – Greek: Pharmakon means drugs
“A branch of biology which deals with the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines is called pharmacology.
Q4. Enlist the various levels of biological organization.
Ans: Levels biological of Organization:
All living things have a structure that is based on specific organization of materials.While science discovers new levels all of the time, In Anatomy, you are responsible for knowing the levels of organization from the atom to the organism.
organization Explanation Example
Atom Matter is composed of up atoms and atom is the smallest particle that maintains its physical and chemical properties; although particles smaller than the atom have been discovered, but they do not maintain these properties.(electrons, protons and neutrons) oxygen, nitrogen, gold
Molecule when two or more atoms are bonded together they form molecules. water, carbon dioxide
They consists simple molecules such as
Amino acids, glucose, fatty acids.
when two or more micro molecules are bonded together to form large molecules proteins, lipids, carbohydrates
Organelles several macromolecules bonded together form these building blocks of a cell mitochondria, nucleus, golgi apparatus
Cell the smallest unit of life, a cell is a collection of organelles functioning together bacteria, animal, plant
Tissue a collections of cells working together to perform a specific job epithelial, connective
Organ two or more types of tissues that work together to complete a specific task heart, stomach, brain
(systems) several organs working in unison to achieve a common goal digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory
Organism several organ systems functioning together human, dog, tree
Population groups of individual organisms of the same species working together to achieve a common goal bees, ants
Community populations of different species of organisms all of the human species
Ecosystem groups of different populations living in the same environment wetlands, oak forest
Biome a collection of ecosystems with similar climates desert, trundra, rainforest
Biosphere all of the biomes on the planet earth the earth's living occupants
Q5. Describe the contribution of Muslim scientists’ in biology.
Ans: Contribution of Muslim scientists’ in biology:
a) Bu Ali Sina: (980, Bukhara– 1037, Irán)
Commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latin name Avicenna was a renowned Muslim scientist and philosopher. He was a Persian.
The Canon of Medicine (Qanun fil-Tib) was used as a text-book in many medical universities up to 1650. His writing also includes philosophy, astronomy, alchemy, geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics, as well as poetry.
b) Jabir Bin Hayyan: (721 in Persia; 815 Iraq)
Often known simply as Geber in West, (Persian/Arabic) a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. He was the first practical chemist.
c) Abdual-Malik Asmai: (740Basra-828Bughdad)
Asmai was an Arab scholar. He was also a pioneer of Natural Science and Zoology. Asmai wrote many books such as: Kitab al-Khail (The Book of the Horse), Kitab al-Ibil (The Book of the Camel), Kitab
al-Farq (The Book of Rare Animals), Kitab al-Wuhush (The Book of Wild Animals), Kitab al-Sha (The Book of the Sheep) and Kitab Khalaq al-Insan (The Book of Humanity).
Q5. If you study biology which career path will you prefer to choose and why?
Ans: As a Biologist there are several career paths one of them I will choose like;
1) Field of Medicine: “A substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease is called medicine”. While studying biology a student should prefer to choose medical line because it is one of the best among career paths, after completion of intermediate.
2) Fisheries: / (As Ichthyologist) the study of fishes is called ichthyology. After selecting biology as a subject next best field after medical, is fishery. As Ichthyologist, a man must know about fish habitats, breeding, diseases, food, population, fish farming or aquaculture etc. As a manager they may work in hatchery (place of hatching eggs) and prevention from diseases. And keep up to date with fish production and information.
3) Agriculture: The science of cultivating crops like wheat, maize, rice and farming of animals that gives milk and meat. Agriculture is one of the best fields so, after completion of intermediate a student of biology may join this line for their career.
4) Animal Science/ Animal husbandry: Animal science is related to breeding and veterinary (medical or surgical treatment) of animals). After completion of intermediate a student of biology has a choice to select D.V.M (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine) which makes his/ her future bright.
5) Horticulture: Latin hortus, garden. “The science of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants” Horticulture primarily differs from agriculture in two ways. First, it surrounds a smaller scale of
cultivation. Secondly, horticultural cultivations include a wide variety of crops.
6) Forestry: Forestry is the scientific management of forest lands for wood water, wildlife, and recreation. Because the major economic importance of the forest lies in wood and wood products, forestry chiefly concerned with timber management, especially reforestation, maintenance of the forest, and fire control.
7) Farming: Farms are developed and maintained for animals and plants breeding. After selecting as a profession have the practical knowledge
Q6. What are bioelements name them and highlight their importance?
Ans: Among 92 naturally occurring elements sixteen are very essential to living organisms. Six of them occur in large quantity and make 99% of living organisms. They are Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Carbon (C), Phosphorous (P) and Calcium(C). Mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen make most structures such as, sugars, starches and other energy molecules while nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur make proteins.
Other elements are needed in less quantity (less than 1%), they are sulphur (S), sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu),Zinc (Zn), Iodine(I) and Chlorine(Cl). E.g. Iron is essential for haemoglobin (red blood cells), calcium for teeth and bones. Sodium and potassium are important for sending messages along nerves.
Plants photosynthesis using carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil to make their own food; they store food up as starch in potatoes, grains, leaves, and put sugar into fruits while animals eat and distribute these. Plants use minerals from the soil to manufacture whatever they need in their own structure. Thus all these elements are available to us when we eat plants.